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Ground Penetrating Radar

 The Easy Locator-series is the easy-to-use choice for utility detection.
MALÅ Easy Locator (EL) HDR is the second generation EL,
especially designed for the detection and locating of buried objects such as pipes,
cables and other utilities.


 

Buried utilities are assets that need
to be protected. It is essential to obtain
precise and reliable information about
the location and depth of buried
infrastructure.


The MALÅ EL HDR offers the best
non-destructive solutions to gather
subsurface data for both metallic
and non-metallic utilities.

Based on real-time sampling technology,
the MALÅ EL HDR is faster, offers higher
data resolution and significantly better
depth of penetration compared to
traditional GPR technology.


The MALÅ HDR technology utilizes
hyperstacking to reduce random noise;
providing an unparallel level of data
quality.

Data Interpretation

Buried utilities are displayed in the GPR profile as a hyperbola, which is often referred to as a signature.
The shape, size and intensity of these signatures can help identify the features that are causing the reflections. The following are examples of data interpretation based on analysis of the hyperbolic reflections.

Hyperbolic Signatures

When the GPR scan is conducted perpendicular to the direction of a buried utility, the buried utility is displayed in the GPR profile as a hyperbola (point object). The hyperbolic signature is desirable since pinpointing the exact location and depth of the buried utility will be easier to determine. Careful planning of the survey grid is therefore essential to obtaining accurate and reliable positioning of buried utilities

GPR Website


A representation of the reflected radar signal in a GPR profile. Reflected signals are caused by changes in the dielectric properties of the target medium. These dielectric differences are usual caused by differences in materials, e.g., a buried object or reinforcing in concrete. Objects of a discrete length are generally characterized by a hyperbolic reflection in the GPR profile, and are referred to as point source reflections. A linear object, such as a pipe, will also display the characteristics of a discrete length object if the GPR scan is performed perpendicular to its longitudinal alignment, and are referred to as planar reflections. As the scan is moved towards the longitudinal alignment of the linear object, the hyperbolic refection flattens until it approaches a horizontal line in the GPR profile. The shape of the signature is also affected by many other factors, including the size of the object, the signal velocity, and the object material.

 

GPR Hyperbolas

The concrete sewer line in the middle is large enough to leave a signature
from both the top and the bottom of the pipe. A close look also shows that
the radius of the signature is larger compared to the water pipes to the left.
This indicates that the object has a lager diameter .
In this example, signatures from the sides of the trench can also be seen.
When a trench is back-filled, changes the properties in the ground
– – even if the same original material is used – –
cause GPR wave reflections of f the interface between the fill and the trench sidewall.

Note: As the diameter of the feature increases, the reflected signature flattens. In this way, an
estimate of the relative size of the feature can be made by inspecting the radius of the hyperbola.
The reflection from the cable on the right also have a smaller radius, confirming this phenomena.